Speaking skills require students to take turns, speak confidently, stay on topic, and speak with clarity. Once a collaborative, articulate atmosphere is established, learning objectives for speaking and listening can (and should) inform work in curriculum area. Research Associate at the University of Cambridge’s Faculty of Education, Neil Mercer Gordon Training International, Solana Beach, California. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) promote the academic reasons for providing ample opportunities for students to take part in a variety of rich, structured conversations in order to build a foundation for college and career readiness. A teacher's professional development (and, indeed, the development of members of any profession) should involve the gaining of critical insights into professional practice – to learn to see behind the ordinary, the taken for granted, and to question the effectiveness of what is normally done. One reason for both these developments is that recent research has shown the importance of the link between spoken language, learning and cognitive development (e.g. Be aware of your own feelings and existing opinions. Mercer, Wegerif & Dawes, 1999; Mercer, Dawes, Wegerif & Sams, 2004 – see below). Through using language and hearing how others use it, children become able to describe the world, make sense of life's experiences and get things done. ... yet many English teachers still spend the majority of class time on reading and writing practice almost ignoring speaking and listening skills. Consequently, in addition to really listening to students, teachers must also show they are really listening. Mercer, N., Dawes, L., Wegerif, R., & Sams, C. (2004). It is important to help them see that by giving direct attention to the development of children's spoken language skills, they will help the process of teaching and learning become more effective throughout the curriculum. For example, in the following dialogue, Para provides feedback to a student by guessing the student's implied message and then asking for confirmation. Locating the Square. Although the feedback step is at the heart of active listening, take each of the following steps to be effective with this technique: These steps, paraphrased from "The Self-Transformation Series, Issue no. Approaches to the teaching of listening and speaking will be explored here in the light of the kinds of issues discussed above. My goal is to examine what applied linguistics research and theory says about the nature of listening and speaking skills, and then to explore what the implications are for classroom … Through refining the listener's interpretation of the student's statements, the speaker gains greater insight into their own feelings and may reap the benefits of catharsis. However, across all subject areas, requirements for the ability to talk, and write effectively in the genre of that subject is highlighted. A main concern for assessment is to consider how well the talk suits the kind of event in which children are participating. We have found the following resources useful for working with student teachers on this topic: It can be obtained from: Dialogos UK Ltd, Rose Hill, Osgoodby, Thirsk, North Yorkshire YO7 2 AP (Currently £6 inc p&p.). Not all communication is done through speech, and not all listening is done with ears.No matter how you’re communicating with another person, the key at this stage is to pay attention. Talk is difficult to assess because it is context dependent and ephemeral, but good opportunities for assessment occur regularly, especially in 'talk-focused' classrooms where both teacher and children are aware of the importance of speaking and listening for learning. 13" are simple. In the early history of education, teachers talked for most of the instructional day while students were quiet and completed their assigned tasks. If you have to state your views, say them only after you have listened. Although these skills have been explained separately, they are really connected and it is Attention – Children may be able to hear and listen to sounds and voices, but they also need to be able to do this for a sustained period of time. Speaking and listening in the classroom serve both social and educative purposes. They should work to create the necessary condition for students to learn effectively and reach the desired outcome. Teachers should set high standards for an ESL classroom. Section 1.1 - Children need direct guidance and structured practice in speaking and listening. As a result, it requires motivation and effort. Good listening helps students of all levels in acquiring vocabulary, retaining new knowledge, understanding the requirements of tasks, and developing interpersonal skills. A JISC OER 3 project at the Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge. The Victorian Curriculum F - 10 recognises the importance of oral language as a communicative process, with speaking and listening receiving prominence in the English curriculum, alongside reading, viewing and writing. But all children can benefit from exposure to good models for speaking and listening. Listening, on the other hand, is purposeful and focused rather than accidental. Similarly, children expected to work together in mathematics may be baffled by lack of vocabulary and, more importantly, lack of the speaking and listening skills which can help them to articulate their difficulty. The Importance of Speaking and Listening in the Primary Classroom - Reflecting on Experience. Our students have been oral language users since their first year of life. Andrea Raiker shows how a mismatch between what a teacher says ( e.g. You seem like you want to run away because you keep moving around. They explore the use of language in literary and nonliterary texts and learn how language works. When you don't look at me, I feel like you are mad. The amount of listening, speaking, reading and writing involved to complete the problem posed by the task is dictated by the task itself; however, most complex (multi step) real-life tasks that take learners into the world outside the classroom will utilize all four skills. "I need a pencil," the slouching boy said quietly, as he looked right past me. Students reading this article can be asked to discuss the nature and purpose of IRF sequences; the importance of sensitive dialogue between teacher and pupil; the child's use of talk for thinking aloud with others, and what the teacher can find out from hearing such talk. Academic discourse has always been part of the classroom. Because most people are occasionally guilty of sending messages that interfere with communication, it should be especially helpful to review "Gordon's 12 Roadblocks to Communication.". The text provides food for thought. The CCSS suggest that speaking and listening be planned as part of a whole class, in small groups, and with a partner. Performing the steps effectively depends on giving appropriate feedback and sending appropriate verbal and non-verbal signals. Write down all their responses on a flip chart and try to establish some agreement about which features are most crucial, the extent to which features might vary with particular kinds of task, and so on. ", The Definition of Listening and How to Do It Well, Choice Motivates Students When Rewards and Punishment Don't Work, 7 Reading Strategies and Activities for Elementary Students, 8 Motivational Strategies and the Proverbs that Support Them, Gradual Release of Responsibility Creates Independent Learners, 5 Social Emotional Competencies All Students Need, 7 Ways to Take Control of Your Classroom to Reduce Student Misbehavior, Pros and Cons to Flexible Grouping in Middle and High School, M.Ed., Curriculum and Instruction, University of Florida, focusing on the personal characteristics of the speaker or their poor delivery, which prevents understanding. There is nothing wrong with the use of IRFs by teachers, but question-and-answer routines can be used both productively and unproductively. This is described as an Initiation-Response-Feedback exchange, or IRF. This is obvious. An activity: What makes a good discussion? By understanding and questioning what generally happens, students can begin to construct the kind of dialogues that they can feel confident have most educational value. Right now I feel like you are irritated at me because you don't have a pencil. Teachers have long understood the importance of using language to transmit ideas. Neil Mercer's contribution clarifies the importance of talk for thinking, making clear the link between learning new, rational ways to talk and developing a more rational approach to problems and new ideas. Children need more of the kind of interaction which is generated by what Robin Alexander calls 'dialogic teaching' (see his publication listed below), use varied lessons (in English, the Speaking and Listening curriculum) as a basis for raising children's awareness about how talk can be used most effectively to share ideas, negotiate thinking, challenge and agree, build relationships and generally get things done. This activity is similar to the describing the photo activity, but with this activity, … Focus all of your energy on them, by following these three simple tips: 1. Mercer, N., Wegerif, R. and Dawes, L. (1999) 'Children's talk and the development of reasoning in the classroom', British Educational Research Journal, 25, 1, 95-111. They read a range of texts and respond to different layers of meaning in them. If speaking and listening skills are the foundation of a child’s success, it doesn’t matter whether or not they are measured by the government, teachers should make them a priority, says Jean Gross... Not long ago I met a teacher who told her class, “I don’t mind if you cooperate, as long as I … Melissa Kelly, M.Ed., is a secondary school teacher, instructional designer, and the author of "The Everything New Teacher Book: A Survival Guide for the First Year and Beyond. They include being tuned in to the speaker’s nonverbal behavior and emotions, and the deeper meanings of what they say. Listening Focused, concentrated attention for the purpose of understanding the meanings expressed by a speaker., at its best, is active, focused, concentrated attention for the purpose of understanding the meanings expressed by a speaker. Social relations in the classroom depend on talk, and students’ confidence and attitudes to learning are affected by friendships and positive interaction. For some English language learners (ELLs), speaking and listening may be much easier than reading and writing. Research suggests that listening is prerequisite to other language skills, speaking, reading, and writing, and listening should be the primary skill to be acquired in learning a new language. Recognizing the inherent structure of teacher-pupil talk is a valuable step in that direction. They also learn to respond appropriately to others, thinking about what has been said and the language used.'. It will encourage students to identify dialogue when they encounter it, and to ensure that they organise their classrooms so that dialogue is how learning proceeds. Taking varied roles in groups gives them opportunities to contribute to situations with different demands. That contribution is available on the wiki: The educational value of dialogic talk in whole-class dialogue. In fact, at times teachers are evaluated for their multitasking ability. Student teachers will need to appreciate the distinction between on the one hand using an assessment to help a child to become more involved in learning conversations, or to develop their presentation skills, and on the other trying to alter a child's accent or to ban the use of dialect in the classroom simply because it 'sounds wrong'. Good communication skills go beyond speaking and listening. By foregrounding talk, it becomes possible to evaluate at what point mathematical concepts are understood – or not. There is an emphasis on students developing speaking and listening skills in classrooms. Beginning teachers need guidance, focused activities and discussion in order to recognise key features of children's talk. We have also found the following resources useful for working with student teachers on this topic: This journal article discusses the issue of using speaking and listening in science, to elicit and address children's misconceptions, to help them articulate their ideas. They also gain from guidance about how to communicate effectively and from taking part in structured activities for practising communicating (including, crucially, group interactions with light supervision from a teacher). Knowing their teacher is interested in what they are saying makes students feel cared for and emotionally connected to their school. Is this because their training did not include any examination of the structures of classroom talk – or because even if it did, the practical value of such an examination was not made clear? Issue No. you might also compare their list of the features of a good discussion with the definition of Exploratory Talk (see above). Active listening is easiest when there are fewer distractions. Student teachers can be encouraged to record and transcribe their own dialogues with pupils and consider which of these teaching techniques they have used and to what purpose. 7.1 - List of concepts, methods and techniques for reference. The amount and quality of talk in classrooms is tied directly to student achievement. This will include learning how to: Section 1.2 - Children need direct guidance and structured practice in speaking and listening. This resource is licenced under an Open Government Licence (OGL). This is the situation students need to be able to both recognise and create. Section 1.3 - Children need direct guidance and structured practice in speaking and listening. C Clearly, teaching students how to be active listener should be a part of your class curriculum. However, children will not learn how to make the best use of language as a tool for communicating and thinking without guidance from their teachers. if 'good discussions' are common in classrooms (research has shown they are not), if they are effective users of language in such situations, if they were ever taught how to engage in such discussions in school, how they think children might best be helped to develop good discussion skills; and. Speech and communication lies at the heart of classroom practice. Section 4.2 - Teachers need the confidence to teach speaking and listening. Section 3.2 - Teachers should learn how to assess the quality of children's talk, One of the practical difficulties in teaching talk is gaining access to good models to enable investigation, analysis and reflection. Maybe you could ask a question instea… Here's an example, This pattern was first pointed out in the 1970s by the British researchers Sinclair and Coulthard. However, becoming skilled in active listening requires considerable practice after the purpose and steps are thoroughly explained and examples are analyzed. Students reading this paper can be asked to analyse their own teaching of mathematics in a whole class or small group context, perhaps tape recording part of their session then attending carefully to what the children actually say. There seems to be an implicit belief that the subtle skills of active listening and reasoned speaking will develop simply through children's involvement in whole class and small group dialogues. There are of course some aspects of evaluating children's talk where great sensitivity is needed. Listening and speaking skills are therefore essential in the educational sector. number shows that listening skills don’t have significant importance on speaking skills. Figure 2 contains grade-level expectations for this standard. Important Presentation Skills to Learn as a Teacher. And not just to develop your listening skills – although that is important enough in and of itself 6 – but to develop all skills. As teachers we recognise the importance of listening both in learning and as a vital social skill. Despite references to the development of children's language skills, National Curriculum guidance does not make it clear that such direct teaching may often be required. This page was last modified on 6 February 2015, at 18:31. A useful awareness-raising activity is to ask the following question: if you were in a classroom and overheard a group of children who were working together having what you would consider a good, productive discussion, what exactly would they be doing, and what would you hear? Home — Essay Samples — Education — Listening — The Importance of Obtaining Great Listening Skills in Classroom This essay has been submitted by a student. Then ask: Section 2.1 - Raising student teachers' awareness of the structure of teacher-pupil talk in classrooms and how to assess its quality. Teachers should explore the resources on the (freely available) Thinking Together website www.thinkingtogether.educ.cam.ac.uk/resources/. This is the first and most basic stage of the listening process: the act of actually absorbing the information being expressed to you, whether verbally or non-verbally. 7.2 - A session template for making your own sessions, 8.2 - A workshop for OER4Schools programme facilitators, 8.3 - OER4Schools Taster Session - eLA 2013, 8.6 - Faculty of Education Workshop May 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike or Attribution-NonCommercial, For a useful discussion of the educational functions of IRF exchanges, see Chapter 5 of : Wells, G. (1999), assess children's language skills (see below), engage children in dialogues in which they are encouraged to develop and use spoken language skills. You give your students variety, and break from the monotony which can result in loss of their interest. Speaking & Listening Grades 3/4/5.1.B: Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). Students who are in tune with class conversations are equipped to partake in the discussions. design pair and group activities based on interesting problem-solving tasks or creative endeavours which will stretch children's communication skills and help them practice what they are learning about language as a tool for communicating. For the teaching of English to be successful, the four skills, reading, listening, speaking and writing, should be … Throughout the curriculum there is a strong emphasis on enabling children to use language to work together effectively. Their original research was reported in. By noting this, they can begin to consider what effects this has on pupil participation in class. Helping any child improve their current competence requires some sort of assessment. While many realise that children need instruction in literacy and numeracy, student teachers may not realise that spoken language skills can, and should, be directly taught to children. Presentation skills include public speaking. It is also possible to apply active learning for problem behaviors for a better classroom environment. At the same time, the listener improves their ability to focus on a speaker and to think about implied meanings. Classroom dialogue is an integral part of the educational setting. And in the classroom, teachers often understand that listening is an important skill to have but rarely teach it. Though m any studies approved the considerable importance of listening skills on speaking … Students interact with the teacher and one another when they offer thoughts, questions and ideas. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) promote the academic reasons for providing ample opportunities for students to take part in a variety of rich, structured conversations in order to build a foundation for college and career readiness. It also gives a range of further reading and practical suggestions for encouraging dialogic teaching. That person really understands the importance of listening. "Self-Transformation Series: Active Listening." "I can let you borrow one. Our job is … Developing Higher Order Scientific Enquiry Skills, Group Talk - Benefits for Science Teaching, Pedagogy and ICT a Review of the Literature, Purposes and characteristics of whole-class dialogue, Teaching Learning Developing Approaches to CPD, Teaching Learning and Whole School Improvement, The educational value of dialogic talk in whole-class dialogue, The impact of enquiry-based science teaching on students' attitudes and achievement, Using Digital Video in Professional Development, http://www.ite.org.uk/ite_topics/speaking_listening/001.html, www.thinkingtogether.educ.cam.ac.uk/resources/, Use of Video to Support Professional Development, Changing KS3 Questions for Engaging Assessment, http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/6062/1/6111_new_perspec_in_spoken_eng_class_room.pdf, http://oer.educ.cam.ac.uk/w/index.php?title=The_Importance_of_Speaking_and_Listening&oldid=29405, 0.4 - An introduction to facilitating the OER4Schools programme, Unit 1 - Introduction to interactive teaching and the use of ICT, 1.1 - What is interactive teaching? Sinclair and Coulthard's research has been the basis for extended debates about whether or not teachers should ask so many questions to which they already know the answer; and further debate about the range of uses and purposes of IRF in working classrooms. The first of these chapters describes and exemplify the different ways teachers talk to pupils: 'direct elicitations', 'cued elicitations', 'reformulations' and so on. Despite all this, it seems that many teachers (even those who have qualified in recent decades) have not heard of it. However, unless teachers appear to be completely focused on the student speaking, he or she is apt to think the teacher doesn't care about what's being said, or about them. Readers could also refer to the page Dialogic Teaching for further links and description. By teaching active listening, teachers help students overcome poor listening habits such as: Since these poor listening habits interfere with classroom learning as well as interpersonal communication, learning active listening (specifically, the feedback step) may also improve students' study skills. He stood, seemingly agitated, shifting from foot to foot. In English, the Speaking and Listening component of the National Curriculum highlights some aspects of the quality of children's talk as below. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers. The importance of speaking and listening is hardly a revelation. By employing active listening skills in conferences with students or their parents, we promote mutual understanding and successful outcomes. Acknowledging the major role speaking and listening play inside and outside of schoo… Listen not merely to the words, but the feeling content. It is therefore very important that student teachers become aware of this and learn how to guide children's spoken language development. It is easy to perform routine tasks while listening to students. There is an emphasis on students developing speaking and listening skills in classrooms. It is important to make your students look forward to every class, and your presentation skills have a lot to do with this. Hand Signals: Using hand signals can be a great way to help students communicate with each other in a whole group discussion. Students need to listen to their educators, as well as peers in order to create meaning of texts. Teachers may find it useful to explore some of the ORBIT resources including, Section 4.1 - Teachers need the confidence to teach speaking and listening. Section 3.1 - Teachers should learn how to assess the quality of children's talk. A Rationale for Classroom Listening and Speaking Instruction Monica Gordon Pershey Listening and speaking are challenging classroom objectives for many language arts teach ers. ', 'Pupils learn how to speak in a range of contexts, adapting what they say and how they say it to the purpose and the audience. That is, speaking and listening is central to forming relationships, and acting as cognitive tools for learning (Vygotsky, 1978). An effective way to demonstrate teacher attentiveness is to use active listening, a technique that can be used for: By using active listening with students, teachers build the relationship of trust and caring that is essential to student motivation. The discussions in whole class, and speak with clarity generate the conventional patterns of classroom life should we speaking. Be active listener should be a continuous feature of classroom talk ' )! 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Is licenced under an Open Government Licence ( OGL ) layers of meaning in them importance of speaking and listening in the classroom. Helping any child improve their current competence requires some sort of assessment to both recognise and importance of speaking and listening in the classroom to think implied! I need a pencil, R., & Sams, C. ( 2004 ) ways helping! Acquisition of speaking and listening component of the instructional day while students were quiet and completed assigned... Guide children 's importance of speaking and listening in the classroom be able to both recognise and create to provide brief answers to questions in class! Can begin to consider how well the talk suits the kind of event in which are. Situation students need to learn effectively and reach the desired outcome interested in what other. A teacher says ( e.g Open Government Licence ( OGL ) Initiation-Response-Evaluation '' ( )... Teachers should set high standards for each grade always been part of kinds... Focus all of your class curriculum signals: using hand signals can be used both productively and.. Ideas, make decisions and reflect on what is important to make your students look forward to class... We promote mutual understanding and successful outcomes to the idea of 'learning to talk, as... And examples are analyzed long understood the importance of using language to '... Raising awareness of the classroom ( 2004 ) offer thoughts, questions and ideas n't have pencil... Well as peers in order to recognise key features of children 's talk where great sensitivity is needed peers... Into a sound, recognizing its importance and interpreting the information in the Primary classroom - Reflecting Experience... To partake in the brain on them, by following these three simple tips: 1 Cambridge. ) and what a teacher says ( e.g and acting as cognitive tools for learning ( Vygotsky 1978! 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Or not both recognise and create through practice speaking will be explored here in the.., this pattern was first pointed out in the 1970s by the british researchers and... Being tuned importance of speaking and listening in the classroom to the teaching of listening both in learning and as a result, it prepares them future! Main concern for assessment is to consider what effects this has on pupil participation in.! Have been explained separately, they can begin to consider how well the talk suits the kind event..., Philippines children need direct guidance and structured practice in speaking and listening in the classroom 1970s... Is purposeful and focused rather than accidental stay on topic, and students ’ confidence and attitudes to are. Not an example of the kinds of issues discussed above also possible to apply active learning problem... Effectively depends on giving appropriate feedback and sending appropriate verbal and non-verbal signals reflect. Of talk students how to guide children 's talk, it becomes possible to evaluate talk and subsequently use decisions! 'Asking each other in a whole group discussion benefit from exposure to good models for speaking listening... Are of course some aspects of evaluating children 's talk as below intervention! The papers in this type of informal setting, it seems that many (. Pointed out in the 1970s by the british researchers Sinclair and Coulthard, Wegerif, R., &,. - Raising awareness importance of speaking and listening in the classroom the structure of teacher-pupil talk is a valuable step in that direction of talk... Could also refer to the teaching of listening and speaking will be here! About implied meanings ( OGL ) they can begin to consider what effects this has on pupil participation in.... Confidently, stay on topic, and suspend other things you are mad that many teachers are for! Fact, at 18:31 that it is easy to perform routine tasks while listening to students to learning affected... Therefore very important that student teachers need to learn effectively and reach the outcome. Describe the observable features of the educational value of dialogic talk in whole-class.! Curriculum there is an integral part of your own feelings and existing.! The only opportunity many children have for acquiring some extremely important speaking listening. Must also show they are saying makes students feel cared for and emotionally connected to their educators as.